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References and Further Reading

If you would like to read more about the history of women's athletics in U.S. higher education, the history of Division III sports, or the history of Title IX, the books, articles, and web resources below provide an excellent starting point. The Playing Field team conducted extensive research while working on this exhibit, and found the background in these sources essential as they drafted their texts. 

Acosta, R. Vivian and Linda Jean Carpenter. “Woman in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study. Thirty-Seven Year Update, 1977-2014.” Acosta - Carpenter (January, 2014).

Belanger, Kelly. Invisible Seasons: Title IX and the Fight for Equity in College Sports. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2016.

Bowen, William G., and Sarah A. Levin. Reclaiming the Game: College Sports and Educational Values. NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Brake, Deborah L. Getting in the Game: Title IX and Women Sports Revolution. NY: NYU Press, 2010.

Cahn, Susan K. Coming on Strong: Gender and Sexuality in Women’s Sport. Second Edition. University of Illinois Press, 2015.

Cahn, Susan K., and Jean O’Reilly. Women and Sports in the United States: A Documentary Reader. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2007.

Cooky, Cheryl, and Michael A. Messner. No Slam Dunk: Gender, Sport and the Unevenness of Social Change. Rutgers University Press, 2018.

Cooky, Cheryl, and Dunja Antunovic. “‘This Isn’t Just About Us’: Articulations of Feminism in Media Narratives of Athlete Activism.” Communication & Sport 8, no. 4/5 (August 2020): 692–711.

Cox, Elizabeth, Sabiston, Catherine M., Karlinsky, April. et al. "The Impact of Athletic Clothing Style and Body Awareness on Motor Performance in Women." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 27 (2020): 1025–1035. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13423-020-01755-2

Danish, Steven J., Albert J. Petitpas, and Bruce D. Hale. "Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports." The Counseling Psychologist 21, no. 3 (July 1993): 352-385.

Daniels, Elizabeth A., Amanda Hood, Nicole M. LaVoi, and Cheryl Cooky. “Sexualized and Athletic: Viewers’ Attitudes toward Sexualized Performance Images of Female Athletes.” Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 84, no. 1–2 (2021): 112. doi:10.1007/s11199-020-01152-y.

Edwards, Sue Bradford. Women in Sports. Women’s Lives in History. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Essential Library, 2017.

Festle, Mary Jo. Playing Nice: Politics and Apologies in Women’s Sports. NY: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Grites, T.J., & James, G.L. 1986. “Division III—Another Ballgame.” NACADA Journal, 3: 23-26.

The Indicator from Project Money. "Leveling the Playing Field." June 1, 2021. Available from: https://www.npr.org/2021/06/01/1002254017/leveling-the-playing-field

Kaneshiro, Dean. Rise of the Wahine: Champions of Title IX. 2018. https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/rise-of-the-wahine-champions-of-title-ix.

Katz, Matthew, Adam G. Pfleegor, Claire Schaeperkoetter, and Jordan Bass. 'Factors for Success in NCAA Division III Athletics." Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics 8 (2015): 102-122. Available from: http://csri-jiia.org/old/documents/publications/research_articles/2015/JIIA_2015_8_6_Factors_in_Success_NCAA_DIII.pdf

Katz, Matthew, & Clopton, A. C. 2014. “Town & Gown...& Jerseys? NCAA Division III athletics as Social Anchors.” Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 7: 285-306.

Katz, Matthew, and Chad Seifried. 2014. “And Then There Were Three: The NCAA’s Struggle for Reorganization and the Emergence of Division III Athletics.” Sport History Review 45 (2): 145–70. doi:10.1123/shr.2013-0010.

LeBlanc, Diane, and Allys M. Swanson. Playing for Equality: Oral Histories of Women Leaders in the Early Years of Title IX. McFarland & Company, Inc., 2016.

NCAA. "Division III Philosophy Statement." https://www.ncaa.org/governance/division-iii-philosophy-statement

NCAA. “Gender-Equity Task Force Issues its Final Report.” The NCAA News 30, no. 29 (August 4, 1993): 1. Available from: http://ncaanewsarchive.s3.amazonaws.com/1993/19930804.pdf

Richards, Gab. "NCAA Report Sets Equity Guidelines." The Washington Post (August 3, 1993). Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/sports/1993/08/03/ncaa-report-sets-equity-guidelines/05a1a346-8d70-47b0-ad42-be2ed70d0bf6/.

Steidinger, Joan. Sisterhood in Sports: How Female Athletes Collaborate and Compete. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2014.

Sturm, Jennifer E., Deborah L. Feltz, and Todd A. Gilson. “A Comparison of Athlete and Student Identity for Division I and Division III Athletes.” Journal of Sport Behavior 34, no. 3 (September 2011): 295–306.

Tibbetts, Courtney. “The FEMALE Act: Bringing Title IX into the Twenty-First Century.” Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law 22, no. 3 (Spring 2020): 697–724.

"Tiger Athletics." The Official Home of the Trinity Tigers. https://trinitytigers.com/history/tigerathletics/index

Trinity University Mirage, Trinitonian, and Course of Study Bulletins

Uhlir, G. Ann. "Athletics and the University: The Post-Woman's Era." Academe 73, no. 4 (1987): 25-29. Accessed July 15, 2021. doi:10.2307/40249958.

Ware, Susan. Title IX: A Brief History with Documents. The Bedford Series in History and Culture. Bedord/St. Martin’s, 2007.